And, yes, I checked for “hanged” as well.

• 1.007 hung down below his waist,
• 1.017 and hang
• 1.027 He hung his hooded cloak on the nearest peg,
• 1.028 and hung his things up
• 1.032 he said when he caught sight of Dwalin’s green hood hanging up.
• 1.032 He hung his red one next to it,
• 1.046 and a white hood were hanging on the pegs,
• 1.050 Then they hung up two yellow hoods
• 1.051 and his own hat hanging on the pegs.
• 1.076 The flowering stars, on crowns they hung
• 1.110 and in his hall there hung a large one
• 1.114 that hung about his neck
• 2.113 hanging on the walls –
• 4.005 There they were sheltering under a hanging rock for the night,
• 6.057 and hung his arm down as far as ever he could.
• 6.058 and tongues hanging out.
• 6.070 with their tongues hanging out,
• 8.001 and hung with lichen
• 8.083 when they’ve hung a bit,’
• 8.084 Don’t hang ’em too long,’
• 8.085 and hang ’em dead for a while.’
• 8.088 till it came to a dozen bundles hanging
• 8.104 and came back to their trees where the dwarves were hung.
• 8.104 if a spider had not luckily left a rope hanging down;
• 8.105 If he cut the string which hung him up,
• 8.107 and from hanging most of the night
• 8.108 But there were still five dwarves hanging at the end of the branch
• 8.110 and skin hanging on a tree.
• 8.110 and then we’ll hang him head downwards for a day or two.’
• 9.058 and how much longer he would be able to hang on,
• 9.061 This had a shingly shore under hanging banks
• 11.026 till they hang down the cliff to the valley
• 12.014 could dimly be seen coats of mail, helms and axes, swordsand spears hanging;
• 13.034 and finding still hanging there many golden harps
• 13.044 that hung twisted on their hinges
• 14.028 his black hair hung wet over his face
• 15.039 The light of stars, on crowns they hung
• 16.036 and hung before them
• 17.031 that hung to his knees,
• 19.036 and red hung on the gate,
• 19.039 His sword he hung over the mantelpiece.


Oh, my! Look at the beautiful variety of crowns!

• 1.076 The flowering stars, on crowns they hung
• 7.009 and wore a golden crown,
• 8.048 A woodland king was there with a crown of leaves,
• 8.071 sat a woodland king with a crown of leaves upon his golden hair,
• 9.005 On his head was a crown of berries
• 9.005 In the spring he wore a crown of woodland flowers.
• 10.035 His crown shall be upholden,
• 15.039 The light of stars, on crowns they hung
• 18.027 Dain has crowned their chief with gold,
• 19.002 And throne and crown perish


And now we have stars to contemplate. Dream Follow Up Study Number Eight Hundred: when stars are mentioned, what are they looking down on and possibly influencing?

• 1.076 The flowering stars, on crowns they hung
• 1.083 The stars were out
• 3.001 They camped under the stars,
• 3.013 and he looked up at the stars.
• 3.025 in June under the stars,
• 5.038 It lies behind stars and under hills,
• 7.103 and stars were fanned to leaping light.
• 8.131 but loved best the stars;
• 9.001 like hundreds of red stars.
• 9.053 Follow, follow stars that leap
• 9.061 and of stars.
• 10.006 where the stars of the Wain were already twinkling,
• 10.016 And I suppose we ought to thank our stars
• 12.007 The stars were coming out behind him
• 12.018 and clouds had covered the stars,
• 12.090 till at last when the stars began to peep forth,
• 12.097 like snow under the stars,
• 13.071 when the first cold stars came out.
• 14.002 the stars shine out from the smooth patches of the lake
• 15.039 The light of stars, on crowns they hung
• 16.036 in a net woven of the glint of frosty stars.
• 19.003 The stars are far brighter
• 19.004 The stars are all burning!
• 19.011 The stars are in blossom, the moon is in flower,
• 19.031 Under cloud and under star,


So many in chapter 7!!

• 1.017 also that he was very fond of flowers.
• 1.076 The flowering stars, on crowns they hung
• 3.008 with flowers growing bright
• 5.055 Birds, beasts, trees, flowers;
• 6.039 in flower,
• 7.025 that great patches of flowers
• 7.045 and fell golden on the garden full of flowers that came right up to the steps.
• 7.046 and looked at the flowers
• 7.133 and flowers
• 8.071 Their gleaming hair was twined with flowers;
• 9.005 In the spring he wore a crown of woodland flowers.
• 12.096 and flowers
• 15.033 and they caught faintly the fragrance of woodland flowers
• 18.052 for the flowers of the gardens of Beorn
• 19.011 The stars are in blossom, the moon is in flower,
• 19.030 And through the merry flowers of June,


Not string, precious…

• 1.076 On silver necklaces they strung
• 5.076 String, or nothing!’
• 5.080 Not string, precious,
• 8.074 Something like a strong sticky string was against his left hand,
• 8.105 If he cut the string which hung him up,
• 13.034 strung with silver they took them
• 14.023 The black arrow sped straight from the string,
• 15.039 On silver necklaces they strung
• 17.048 A few brave men were strung before them


In honor of the lovely, scholarly, charming, and Mightily Fangirlish Ashley Thomas, we are concordancing her word of choice this morning. Thank you very much, Ashley, for being our guest speaker today in class.

The OED admits that the word is of obscure origin:

Etymology: Of obscure origin.Commonly supposed to be an adoption of Dutch kolfkolv- (= German kolbe, Old Norse kólfr, etc.), ‘club’, the name of the stick, club, or bat, used in several games of the nature of tennis, croquet, hockey, etc. But none of the Dutch games have been convincingly identified with golf, nor is it certain that kolf was ever used to denote the game as well as the implement, though the game was and is called kolven (the infinitive of the derived verb). Additional difficulty is caused by the absence of any Scottish forms with initial c or k, and by the fact that golf is mentioned much earlier than any of the Dutch sports. Some modern Scots dialects have gowf ‘a blow with the open hand’, also verb to strike.

“golf, n.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, September 2019, http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/79822. Accessed 13 November 2019.

But we all know better…

[01.094] If you have ever seen a dragon in a pinch, you will realize that this was only poetical exaggeration applied to any hobbit, even to Old Took’s great-grand-uncle Bullroarer, who was so huge (for a hobbit) that he could ride a horse. He charged the ranks of the goblins of Mount Gram in the Battle of the Green Fields, and knocked their king Golfimbul’s head clean off with a wooden club. It sailed a hundred yards through the air and went down a rabbit-hole, and in this way the battle was won and the game of Golf invented at the same moment.


I believe that the color silver meant a great deal to Tolkien – he often used it in compounds: silver-grey, silver-hafted, silver-steel. Most famously, it is used in clothing – whether with green or white, I posit that anyone clothed in silver in the stories is to be admired. Well, then. A project for my eighties when everything else is done?

• 1.007 a silver scarf
• 1.038 silver belts,
• 1.046 and silver belts to join the others.
• 1.050 and also a sky-blue one with a long silver tassel.
• 1.076 On silver necklaces they strung
• 1.113 made of silver.
• 3.040 in a broad silver crescent.
• 3.042 and wrote them with silver pens,
• 7.013 and silver
• 7.095 and silver
• 7.095 there were no things of gold or silver
• 8.133 and silver,
• 8.133 especially for silver
• 10.010 with its tarnished silver tassel.
• 10.035 The lord of silver fountains
• 12.013 and silver red-stained
• 12.096 and silvered
• 12.096 for it was wrought of pure silver
• 12.097 it shone like silver
• 13.034 strung with silver they took them
• 14.008 his silver like a fountain,
• 14.021 and silvered his great wings.
• 15.039 On silver necklaces they strung
• 17.019 in silver
• 17.021 and silver?’
• 17.034 and silver
• 18.017 and silver,
• 18.033 Yet a fourteenth share of all the silver and gold,
• 18.037 one filled with silver,
• 18.046 of silver and pearls
• 19.003 Than silver in treasure;
• 19.012 The river is silver, the shadows are fleeting;
• 19.037 Many of his silver spoons mysteriously disappeared
• 19.039 and silver was largely spent